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Bungee jumping for military mental health? Army using extreme sports to aid war veterans
July 28, 2008
FORT LEWIS, Washington -- Sgt. Sylvia Portillo went first.
Secured with elastic cords to a railroad bridge more than 200 feet over a gorge south of Mount St. Helens, Portillo's mission was to dive over the edge. She pretended to throw up, getting a nervous laugh out of the troops behind her. Then, keeping her own anxiety in check, she bungee-jumped into the lush green below.
Dozens of soldiers in the 2nd Battalion, 12th Field Artillery Regiment and the 4th Stryker Brigade Combat Team took the plunge that day last fall. Most had been recently deployed in Iraq. Few had bungee-jumped before.
As he stood at the edge, Sgt. Steve Damron felt a mix of trepidation and adrenaline that he likened to patrols through Baghdad. "It's a chance to calm our brothers down," he said, "to push that adrenaline out."
That's the idea.
More than 323,000 Army soldiers have served more than one deployment in Iraq or Afghanistan, according to Defense Department statistics entering June, and the Army had the highest rate of suicides on record last year. Researchers reported this month that 37 percent of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans seeking care at Veterans Affairs clinics for the first time are being diagnosed with mental health disorders.
The situation has the military searching for ways to supplement and redefine its counseling and self-awareness evaluation programs, and now, for ways to bring the thrilling terror of war home through safe outlets.
The battle-weary 4th Stryker Brigade based at Fort Lewis, outside Tacoma, was picked for the third and final trial of a new Army program called Warrior Adventure Quest. It sends soldiers just back from war on outings of paintball, mountain biking, scuba diving, sky diving, whitewater rafting, alpine skiing, snowboarding and rock climbing.
Army officials say they've learned that soldiers who are used to life in a war zone suddenly find life at home to be moving at a glacial pace. The theory is that extreme experiences such as thrill sports can help troops overcome what one soldier in the 4th Stryker Brigade called "the Rambo syndrome" -- the emotional need for some of the tension and fear-tinged excitement of combat.
"If they want adrenaline, let's give them adrenaline. Let's give it to them in a manner in which they are going to survive," said John O'Sullivan, the Army's program manager for outdoor recreation and the Warrior Adventure Quest.
Damron said bungee jumping worked on an emotional level.
"It's like your first time going in a house" in Iraq, he said. "You have no clue what's on the other side. You hit one room, awesome sweep. Now, OK, you've got to hit another room. You're walking in the middle of the night. You have no clue what's out there -- like bungee jumping."
Warrior Adventure Quest is really a post-deployment extension of an emotion-based battlefield assessment the military has developed for small-unit leaders. It goes beyond the traditional review of tactics to include immediate assessments of soldiers' reactions and the acknowledgment of the need for "self and buddy aid."
The team that began developing Warrior Adventure Quest recommended debriefings after each activity. The sessions are aimed at helping soldiers realize the connection between the extreme sport experience and challenges of reconnecting to their daily lives back home.
"It's a final reset" before returning to society, said Lt. Col. Ed Busher, the deputy director of the behavioral health department in the Army's Office of the Surgeon General, who traveled to Fort Lewis for the program's final test.
"It's been unanimously well received," he said. "Every iteration, there's been this experience of, 'Oh, this reminded me of Iraq.'"
The Army began implementing Warrior Adventure Quest into platoon-sized units of 30 to 40 soldiers in January, at Grafenwoehr and Ansbach in Germany, and then at Fort Drum, N.Y., Fort Stewart, Ga., Fort Campbell, Ky., Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. and Fort Bragg, N.C.
By this fall, the Army will have started Warrior Adventure Quest at 26 posts worldwide.
Dr. Dan Blazer is intrigued by the program but cautions not to put too much faith in its effects for the long term. A professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center who works with World War II veterans still struggling with their experiences, Blazer said in an e-mail to The Associated Press that "the premise is both interesting and in some ways sound (just as vigorous exercise can in theory relieve anxiety)."
However, Blazer -- who served on a military mental health task force in 2007 -- cautioned that, "I do have one opinion about such approaches: The stress of war is unlike anything else that we can imagine or imitate. I suspect that as long as we have war, especially war such as in the two theaters currently, we are going to see PTSD," or post-traumatic stress disorder.
The program is being funded through September by the Army's Family Morale, Welfare and Recreation Command. The cost is estimated to be a minimum of $7 million for every 80,000 soldiers who participate. The Army is still exploring how to pay for it beyond this fiscal year. It is also collecting data from these early months of the program to see if it works.
The half-dozen Fort Lewis soldiers who joined Damron to discuss how bungee jumping related to their missions in Iraq think it does.
For them, the aggression of war remains fresh. Sounds of the urban night they used to sleep through -- sirens, squealing tires -- keep them on full alert. Garbage-strewn alleys in Tacoma and Seattle bring flashbacks to Baghdad.
Most at the bungee-jumping site had been home for less than four months. Some had done multiple tours in Iraq, completing nightly missions in Black Hawk helicopters and sleeping through days back as bases such as Camp Speicher, near Tikrit, north of Baghdad. Others' missions were more sporadic, causing as little as two hours of uninterrupted sleep a night.
Now home, some go on runs at midnight because they can't wind down to sleep.
"I just had to keep telling myself to slow down," Damron said. "I wanted to be active at all times of the day."
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